How the Development of Commercial Space Shuttle Programs in the Private Sector are Successful

APA Research Paper
Below are three possible topics for an in depth research paper (literature review). To enable preliminary database searches, key words have been underlined.  Notice these topics are very specific and “narrow” subjects. Students must examine the full details surrounding the topic in order to answer their own questions relating to the full topic.  Remember also, all articles and essays are limited to five years or younger. The evidence may discuss prior data from previous years, but the data must reflect on current times.
Likewise, despite the fact some of these subjects have an intense pathos-element, students are looking for information related to both sides of the argument. The finalized paper must be roughly
50% logos, 45 % ethos, and 5 % pathos. These are not personal-persuasion essays.  We will discuss more academic argument strategies as you build the paper. Aim for a deductive approach to explain the various materials you find. The last paragraph may show a preference towards one of the two sides of the issue.

Word Count: 1,250 (roughly four and a half pages)
Presentation: Times New Roman, 12 point type, double spaced, one inch margins, indented paragraphs
Reference Material Required:
1-3 physical or digital books
5 articles from school databases
• resources must be used in the paper at least once
• substantial information must be collected and analyzed  within the full paper

The full APA document includes:
• cover sheet (follow the provided example on p. 549 in AWR)
• abstract paragraph with keywords (see p. 541 and provided sample)
• five page document
• References page (see p. 548 for example)

Explanation of Terms
Typically, a persuasive (expository) essay is more personal and more informal than a traditional argument paper. Persuasive writing needs more pathos-related elements in order to persuade an audience to follow an author’s points of view. Emotional and descriptive styles allow readers to connect to the writer’s personal opinions.

An academic argumentative essay requires the author to generate a claim which can be backed up with evidence from a variety of sources. The evidence shown in these papers conveys the author’s opinions through a process of strong analysis. In addition, the thesis statement shows the student’s opinions on the topic and implies the student is open to further discussion on the material. The body paragraphs must provide various data which confirm or defend the thesis statement. The conclusion provides the student’s interpretation of all evidence gathered within the paper. Logos-based evidence is essential for building these papers. [Topics 1 or 3 could apply here.]

On the other hand, although based on logos-elements as well, a literature review moves to a higher level of academic writing. Through extensive research, an author presents various views on a topic to show the diverse opinions by accredited scholars, doctors, or experts in the field. The student displays the strengths and weaknesses of the collected ideas without an overt bias on the subject. In one sense, a literature review is similar to an annotated bibliography, however, notice this style of writing is more than simply supplying summaries of articles. [Topics 2 or 3 could apply here.]

Authors want to be sure
1. to identify a set number of useful articles and books on the selected topic
2. to provide unbiased analysis of the material
3. to organize the paper around a declarative thesis

Both argumentative essays and literature reviews rely on a selected argument pattern for discussion of evidence. These different types of patterns will be discussed in class in a matter of weeks.
1. Aristotelian (Classic) Argument
2. Toulmin Argument
3. Rogerian Discussion

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