La Chicana Lecture

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La Chicana Lecture Notes

After reviewing this lecture you should be able to:

  1. 1)  ConceptualizeChicanasunderstandingofsexandsexualityandsilenceregarding these discussions
  2. 2)  ComprehendwhyChicanalesbians“threaten”theChicanocommunity

In Zavella’s article “Talkin’ sex: Chicanas and Mexicanas theorize about silences and sexual pleasures” we learn that the some Chicanas/Mexicanas Zavella spoke with in her research were taught that to speak about sex, sexuality and to engage (and enjoy) sex was dishonorable. In some examples nicknames or code words were used in lieu of the words vagina and penis. Zavella hypothesizes that this silence concerning sex (and sexuality) may influence the teen pregnancy rate among Chicanas and Latinas. Further, De Anda et al in their article, “Sexuality, pregnancy, and motherhood among Mexican-American adolescents” argue that when sex was discussed among their sample the information exchanged was inaccurate or vague. De Anda etal add, “Few mothers of the Mexican-American adolescents provided daughters with specific information about sex. Most of the Mexican-American adolescents received no instruction whatsoever from their parents regarding sexual behavior” (De Anda et al., 406). This research is consistent with Zavella’s study.

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Researchers point out that with acculturation and changes in social economic status and educational achievement, sex talk increases. That is to say, that more education one has the more information Chicanas/Latinas will know about sex, sexuality and their bodies. However, culture plays are large influence over the knowledge Chicanas/Latinas have about sex and sexuality.

Meanwhile, Trujillo (1997) in her writing on Chicanas lesbians argues that in order to be true to yourself as a Chicana lesbian you must grapple and reconcile with your sexuality as this is a huge part of your identity. However, she argues that this is difficult within the Chicanocommunity because as a Chicana lesbian you are a threat. That is, “their [Chicana lesbians] existence disrupts the established order of male dominance, and raises the consciousness of many Chicana women regarding their own independence and control” (p. 281). Per Trujillo (1997), the perceived threat is in part based in fear. She adds that Chicana lesbians threaten the Chicano community through fear within four realms. These include the following:

1) Sexuality-Chicanasaretaughtthatbehaviorregardingsexandsexualitymustconformto certain norms (i.e., marianismo); if you go outside these culturally and socially proscribed norms you bring shame upon yourself and your reputation is dishonored

  1. Trujillo (1997) states, “We, as women, are taught so suppress our sexual desires and needs by conceding all pleasure to the male. As Chicanas, we are commonly led to believe that even talking about our participation and satisfaction in sex is taboo” (p. 282).
  2. Trujillo adds that most women know little about their bodies
  3. Confronting sexuality must be done to confront lesbianism

 

d. This may lead to internalized homophobia and sexism if not able to reconcile sexuality

  1. 2)  Identification-Womenaretaughtthattobecompletetheymustbeconnectedtoaman (i.e., “You complete me.” ~Jerry Maguire); in a patriarchal society we are taught that we are not as smart as men, nor as valuable; we must compete against other women for men

    a. Trujillo notes that in order to maintain heterosexual privilege we must be connected to a man- this relationship is reinforced by society (i.e., law, church, family, etc.)

    b. Women are viewed as property- father relinquishes control of daughter to husband; Daughter changes maiden name (once her father’s) to husband’s last name

    c. Trujillo asserts that Chicana lesbians challenge the Chicano community because they do not participate in this “game” of “compulsory heterosexuality” (p. 283)

  2. 3)  Motherhood-anextensionofthenotionthatwomenarenotcompletewithoutaman;that is, they are not complete unless they have children
    1. Chicana lesbians that have children are viewed as abnormal within the culture
    2. Chicana lesbians are “failing to partake in one of their chief obligations in life”

      (Trujillo, p. 284).

  3. 4)  Religion-thePopedoesnotcondoneagaylifestyle;becausetheChicanocommunityis mostly Catholic their lifestyle is not approved by the Catholic religion;
    1. Chicanas who confront their sexuality must challenge their religious belief systems and decide whether to maintain, alter or leave religion
    2. Religion based on patriarchy- includes sexual, emotional and psychological control

Although Chicana lesbians and non-lesbians are not the same, Trujillo (1997) notes that these two groups can come together on three levels to advocate for one another. Namely the following:

  1. 1)  All women are given less privilege and value than men
  2. 2)  Allwomenmustcontendwiththethreatofthebody-throughsexualassault,harassment,

    etc.

  3. 3)  SexualityisrepressedbyChicanoculture

     

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    https://moodle-2014-2015.fullerton.edu/pluginfile.php/360916/mod_resource/content/1/Gutierrez%202008.pdf

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    Directions: Address the instructor-initiated questions listed below in a minimum 200 word post. You ALSO need to select ONE student reading presentation and respond to the DB questions to receive full credit. EACH response should be at least 200 words (for a total of a minimum of 400 words).

     

     

    Per some of our authors, society conditions women to believe that they are not complete unless they get married and have children.  How do you reconcile this belief with the nonconsenting sterilization of Mexican women (Gutiérrez) and the “voluntary” sterilization of Puerto Rican women (La Operacíon video)?   In other words, how do you reconcile these two contradictory beliefs?

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Personality disorders are chronic and persistent behavioral and emotional disturbances that are often difficult to treat.

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Personality disorders are chronic and persistent behavioral and emotional disturbances that are often difficult to treat. Some professionals argue that these disorders are not mental disorders at all, but personality styles—that these individuals are just odd or unusual. Review your text book and a minimum of two peer reviewed references and develop an argument for or against the inclusion of personality disorders as a diagnostic category in the next version of the DSM. Be sure to support your position with relevant research on the causation, diagnosis, and treatment of personality disorders.

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Personality disorders are chronic and persistent behavioral and emotional disturbances that are often difficult to treat.

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Personality disorders are chronic and persistent behavioral and emotional disturbances that are often difficult to treat. Some professionals argue that these disorders are not mental disorders at all, but personality styles—that these individuals are just odd or unusual. Review your text book and a minimum of two peer reviewed references and develop an argument for or against the inclusion of personality disorders as a diagnostic category in the next version of the DSM. Be sure to support your position with relevant research on the causation, diagnosis, and treatment of personality disorders.

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If you were the manager of the marketing department (or director of community/public relations) for a sports program (you name the level) what would the extent of your

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.If you were the manager of the marketing department (or director of community/public relations) for a sports program (you name the level) what would the extent of your community or public relations efforts be? What strategies would you use to decide which events and activities to participate in?

2.What ethical questions or other issues might an organization (please identify the level and type) raise when choosing among sponsorship opportunities?

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If you were the manager of the marketing department (or director of community/public relations) for a sports program (you name the level) what would the extent of your

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.If you were the manager of the marketing department (or director of community/public relations) for a sports program (you name the level) what would the extent of your community or public relations efforts be? What strategies would you use to decide which events and activities to participate in?

2.What ethical questions or other issues might an organization (please identify the level and type) raise when choosing among sponsorship opportunities?

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Is a Video Will a Valid Will?

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TV shows and movies often portray the use of a video will. Are video wills valid? How can they be used? What is your opinion of a video will?

 

  1. 2.       Week 5 Assignment

Business Law I

Landlord Liability

Write a short essay, between 400 and 500 words, responding to the assignment below. You are expected to utilize the textbook and outside resources to provide accurate and substantive answers to the question. Also, be sure to make use of illustrating examples where appropriate. Submit your work in APA format.

To what extent may a landlord be held liable for injuries caused by defects on the premises? Can a landlord be held liable for injuries caused by the crimes of third persons?

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Is a Video Will a Valid Will?

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TV shows and movies often portray the use of a video will. Are video wills valid? How can they be used? What is your opinion of a video will?

 

  1. 2.       Week 5 Assignment

Business Law I

Landlord Liability

Write a short essay, between 400 and 500 words, responding to the assignment below. You are expected to utilize the textbook and outside resources to provide accurate and substantive answers to the question. Also, be sure to make use of illustrating examples where appropriate. Submit your work in APA format.

To what extent may a landlord be held liable for injuries caused by defects on the premises? Can a landlord be held liable for injuries caused by the crimes of third persons?

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New Orleans

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The Case For, or Against, New Orleans

Sometimes one’s choices may involve catastrophic decisions and bear great risk and yet there can be no clear answer. For example, if a person gets a divorce, shutters a plant, sells a losing investment, or closes their business, will he or she be better off? The following case incorporates nearly all of the material you have covered this far and presents an example of one such choice where nearly all of the alternatives have a significant downside risk.

Review the following information from the article “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New Orleans Flood Protection System” by Stéphane Hallegatte (2005):

  • Hallegatte, an environmentalist, assigns a probability (p) of a Katrina-like hurricane of 1/130 in his cost-benefit analysis for flood protection. However, the levees that protect New Orleans also put other regions at greater risk. You may assume the frequency of other floods is greater than Katrina-like events (Vastag & Rein, 2011).
  • The new levees that were built in response to Katrina cost approximately fourteen billion dollars (in 2010). This is in addition to the direct costs of Katrina (eighty-one billion dollars in 2005).
  • 50 percent of New Orleans is at or below sea level.
  • 100-year event means that there is a 63 percent chance that such an event will occur within a 100-year period.
  • The following are the interested (anchored and/or biased) constituencies:
    • Residents of New Orleans—both those that can move and those who cannot move
    • Residents of the surrounding floodplains at risk from New Orleans levees
    • The Mayor of New Orleans
    • The federal government—specifically taxpayers and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Assume that the availability heuristics make people more risk averse (populations drop, at least in the short term). Consider how this would affect the local economy.

You are an analyst at FEMA and are in charge of developing a recommendation for both the state and the local governments on whether or not to redevelop New Orleans.

Write a report with your recommendation. Address the following in your report:

Part A

  • Analyze the economics of New Orleans in light of the above parameters and develop your own Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) for rebuilding.
  • Evaluate the value of the CBA for each constituency and integrate these estimates into a scenario model and/or decision tree. Analyze the results.
  • Clearly each of these constituencies may both overlap and be prey to a variety of group dynamics internally. For one of these options, discuss the decision pitfalls to which they may be susceptible and make a recommendation on how to alleviate these pressures.
  • Starting with your CBA, estimate the relevant expected utility for theinterested constituencies.

Note: You need not have absolute amounts but your relevant utilities should be proportional to one another.

Hint: If you assume that your total CBA for New Orleans is fixed for each constituency (do not forget the overlaps), then each constituency will have a piece of the utility pie.

Part B

  • Make a case for or against rebuilding the city of New Orleans. This should be an executive summary; be concise and brief. Include exhibits.
  • Whether you are for or against, discuss how social heuristics could be used to your advantage, both ethically and unethically, in making your case. You may choose to fill the role of one of the constituents, if you prefer.

Write an 8–12-page report in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use proper spelling and grammar throughout, and keep the text legible and balanced with visuals. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M5_A1.doc.

 

Hallegatte, S. (2006). A cost-benefit analysis of the New Orleans flood protection system.Center for Environmental Sciences and Policy. Stanford University. Retrieved from

http://hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/16/46/28/PDF/Hallegatte_NewOrleans_CBA9.pdf

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New Orleans

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The Case For, or Against, New Orleans

Sometimes one’s choices may involve catastrophic decisions and bear great risk and yet there can be no clear answer. For example, if a person gets a divorce, shutters a plant, sells a losing investment, or closes their business, will he or she be better off? The following case incorporates nearly all of the material you have covered this far and presents an example of one such choice where nearly all of the alternatives have a significant downside risk.

Review the following information from the article “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New Orleans Flood Protection System” by Stéphane Hallegatte (2005):

  • Hallegatte, an environmentalist, assigns a probability (p) of a Katrina-like hurricane of 1/130 in his cost-benefit analysis for flood protection. However, the levees that protect New Orleans also put other regions at greater risk. You may assume the frequency of other floods is greater than Katrina-like events (Vastag & Rein, 2011).
  • The new levees that were built in response to Katrina cost approximately fourteen billion dollars (in 2010). This is in addition to the direct costs of Katrina (eighty-one billion dollars in 2005).
  • 50 percent of New Orleans is at or below sea level.
  • 100-year event means that there is a 63 percent chance that such an event will occur within a 100-year period.
  • The following are the interested (anchored and/or biased) constituencies:
    • Residents of New Orleans—both those that can move and those who cannot move
    • Residents of the surrounding floodplains at risk from New Orleans levees
    • The Mayor of New Orleans
    • The federal government—specifically taxpayers and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Assume that the availability heuristics make people more risk averse (populations drop, at least in the short term). Consider how this would affect the local economy.

You are an analyst at FEMA and are in charge of developing a recommendation for both the state and the local governments on whether or not to redevelop New Orleans.

Write a report with your recommendation. Address the following in your report:

Part A

  • Analyze the economics of New Orleans in light of the above parameters and develop your own Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) for rebuilding.
  • Evaluate the value of the CBA for each constituency and integrate these estimates into a scenario model and/or decision tree. Analyze the results.
  • Clearly each of these constituencies may both overlap and be prey to a variety of group dynamics internally. For one of these options, discuss the decision pitfalls to which they may be susceptible and make a recommendation on how to alleviate these pressures.
  • Starting with your CBA, estimate the relevant expected utility for theinterested constituencies.

Note: You need not have absolute amounts but your relevant utilities should be proportional to one another.

Hint: If you assume that your total CBA for New Orleans is fixed for each constituency (do not forget the overlaps), then each constituency will have a piece of the utility pie.

Part B

  • Make a case for or against rebuilding the city of New Orleans. This should be an executive summary; be concise and brief. Include exhibits.
  • Whether you are for or against, discuss how social heuristics could be used to your advantage, both ethically and unethically, in making your case. You may choose to fill the role of one of the constituents, if you prefer.

Write an 8–12-page report in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use proper spelling and grammar throughout, and keep the text legible and balanced with visuals. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M5_A1.doc.

 

Hallegatte, S. (2006). A cost-benefit analysis of the New Orleans flood protection system.Center for Environmental Sciences and Policy. Stanford University. Retrieved from

http://hal.cirad.fr/docs/00/16/46/28/PDF/Hallegatte_NewOrleans_CBA9.pdf

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What are some examples of hazard control methods that are recommended in hazard prevention and reduction techniques?

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1.What are some examples of hazard control methods that are recommended in hazard prevention and reduction techniques? Do you feel that some of these methods are more important to use than others? Which do you believe reduces the possibility of a future hazard? Explain your answer.

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Your response should be at least 200 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

2.Explain the steps for conducting an accident investigation. What are the terms that should guide an accident investigation? What are some important things to remember while conducting and accident investigation?

3.When conducting an accident investigation, what are some of the more important techniques that need to be used in interviewing accident witnesses in order to ensure all information is objective and accurate? Describe these techniques in detail.

4. When conducting a detailed analysis, explain the method technic of operations review. Explain how it allows both supervisors and employees to work together to analyze workplace accidents, failures, and incidents. Is this a successful method? What are some of the weaknesses of using the technic operations review?

5. Describe the purpose of a preliminary hazard analysis. How is expertise beneficial when conducting this type of analysis? Why is cost-benefit analysis such a critical part of hazard analysis and prevention? Explain your answer.

 

1.What are some examples of hazard control methods that are recommended in hazard prevention and reduction techniques? Do you feel that some of these methods are more important to use than others? Which do you believe reduces the possibility of a future hazard? Explain your answer.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

2.Explain the steps for conducting an accident investigation. What are the terms that should guide an accident investigation? What are some important things to remember while conducting and accident investigation?

3.When conducting an accident investigation, what are some of the more important techniques that need to be used in interviewing accident witnesses in order to ensure all information is objective and accurate? Describe these techniques in detail.

4. When conducting a detailed analysis, explain the method technic of operations review. Explain how it allows both supervisors and employees to work together to analyze workplace accidents, failures, and incidents. Is this a successful method? What are some of the weaknesses of using the technic operations review?

5. Describe the purpose of a preliminary hazard analysis. How is expertise beneficial when conducting this type of analysis? Why is cost-benefit analysis such a critical part of hazard analysis and prevention? Explain your answer.

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